Academic Papers






Queen Mary College, University of London

 For  various reasons the Phoenicians have long been overlooked as a serious subject of study by scholars more interested in the brilliant histories of the Greeks and Romans. As a result it has only been in recent years that a sufficient body of evidence has been collected to show that the Phoenicians did in fact have an identifiable society, and that there was a reasonably complete outline of their history. 

The major aspects of that history of the Phoenician people are explored in the four academic papers shown here. The full text of those papers and their footnoted sources are available on these pages:

     Origin of Phoenicians

From a paper presented at

Queen Mary College in London

     The Minoans

From a paper presented at

California State University, Long Beach

     Sea Peoples                 

From a paper presented at

Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco

     Punic Wars and Peace

From a paper presented at

Marquette University in Milwaukee

One result of assembling this inclusive review of Phoenician society and history has been to show us that Roman and Greek history is not diminished in any way by the fact that Phoenician history existed. Research paper author Sanford Holst notes, "When their societies were young, the Greeks and the Romans saw things among other societies -- including that of the Phoenicians -- then made those things better, and even made some of them great." The transcendent role of the Greeks and Romans is not in doubt. In that regard, then, the study of Etruscans, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Hittites and others can be a good preamble for the study of Greco-Roman history.

Academic Papers

General Interest Articles

Phoenicians Home Page


Ancient Ships and Sea Trade

Carthage, Hannibal

Ancient Mediterranean

Egypt, Pyramids & Cedar

Solomon's Temple

Templars in Lebanon

Phoenician Colonies


Phoenicians Images

Cedars of Lebanon

Byblos, Sidon and Tyre

Beirut & Other Cities



Adonis Legend

Aphrodite Legend

Isis and Osiris Legend

Europa Legend

Elissa Legend

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